External Partner: Huntleigh Healthcare, UK
This project was conducted in collaboration with Cwm Taf Morgannwg Health Board, Aneurin Bevan Health Board and Huntleigh Healthcare.
Lymphoedema is a debilitating and long-term condition that often leads to pooling of fluid in the lower limbs. The long-term management of swollen legs is achieved by tight bandaging and directed massage. Automated compression devices, which mimic manual massage, have been developed which allow the underlying fluid accumulation to be displaced from the affected limb. These devices can be used by the patient at home, leading to improved care and the quality of life of these patients.
Little research has been conducted on the efficacy of these devices. The aim of this project was to determine how effective home use of these automated compression devices are at reducing limb volume, restoring skin biomechanics and improving quality of life.
The project has highlighted new avenues of investigation and provided unequivocal evidence that compression devices can be used to promote the self-management of lower limb lymphoedema.
Professor Carolyn Wallace founded and developed the Wales School for Social Prescribing Research(WSSPR) in 2020. This virtual all-Wales school, funded by Health and Care Research Wales, has four active themes, evaluation, social value, education and wellbeing. WSSPR has received HCRW infrastructure funding to develop a social prescribing evaluation methodology, building on the work previously completed by the Wales Social Prescribing Research Network (WSPRN).
To deliver this programme of research Professor Wallace works closely with Dr Sally Rees, WCVA, (Bangor University ), Sara Thomas (Public Health Wales), Prof David Pontin (USW), Prof Steve Smith (USW), Dr Glynne Roberts (Betsi Cadwaladr UHB) and Megan Elliott (USW).
In 2017, Carolyn founded the Wales Social Prescribing Research Network (WSPRN) to build the evidence base for social prescribing in Wales, with a £10k grant from Wales School for Social Care Research.
In the past decade, the links between core types of childhood maltreatment and suicidal acts have become an increasingly important area of investigation. However, no meta-analytic review has examined this relationship in prisoners.
We undertook the first systematic meta-analytic review examining the link between childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts in prisoners to redress this important gap.
Given the high rates of prison suicide deaths and suicide attempts, our findings suggest an urgent need for targeted suicide prevention priorities for prisoners, with a particular focus on ameliorating the effects of childhood traumatic experiences on suicidal prisoners.
Project staff: Dr Emily Groves, Professor Jennifer Austin
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management intervention whereby students earn points toward a particular criterion to “win” the game. Typically, students know the criterion at the start of the game. However, this approach may cause behaviour to deteriorate if, during the game, students believe that they have already won or lost.
The study investigated the effects of known and unknown criteria in a Welsh Year 4 (ages 8–9) classroom. Participants included three students who engaged in disruptive behaviour (target students) and three who typically did not (nontarget peers). Tau-U and percentage nonoverlapping data (PND) effect size calculations indicated that both known and unknown criterion games were effective at reducing target students’ disruptions to within the range of their nontarget peers, but neither game was more effective than the other.
Teachers reported that they preferred playing the GBG with an unknown criterion; however, the students’ preferences were mixed.
The objective of this research is to review the literature on the outreach activities of football clubs and to identify the most beneficial elements of these programmes for the mental health and psychological well-being of young participants.
Following this, the aim is to develop and trial a novel programme which incorporates all the positive elements of successful programmes. This will incorporate both classroom and physical activity based elements.
The research will substantially add to the literature about how physical activity may enhance the mental health and psychological well-being young people, and also clearly delineate the role of professional football clubs in this endeavour.
Two papers are currently in review:
Physical Activity Interventions for the Mental Health and Well-Being of Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Submitted to the Journal of Adolescent Health.
Physical Activity Interventions for the Mental Health and Well-Being of Children: A Systematic Review. Submitted to the Journal of Pediatric Psychology.
Project Staff: Kerry-Ann Liles (KESS PhD Student), Emma Brute (United Welsh Housing Association), Jayne Painter (Monmouthshire Housing Association) Mary Clare O’Connell, Dr Sue Faulkner, Dr Philip Tyson
The psychological disorder of hoarding is characterised by a persistent difficulty in parting with possessions irrespective of their actual value, to the extent that living areas become congested and cluttered and in some cases rooms can be unusable. The disorder is associated with clinically significant distress, an impairment in social and occupational functioning and there are many health and safety risks associated with hoarding behaviour such as fire hazards, risk of falling, poor hygiene, poor nutrition, insect manifestations, and medical problems resulting from bacteria, dust and dirt.
Cases of hoarding present a challenge for housing associations because there is lack of community based support for such individuals, and there are no governmental nor local policies and procedures to help support hoarding tenants. In some instances, housing associations are faced with the prospect of having to evict tenants; a course of action that is not ideal for either the tenant nor the housing association, and incurs considerable costs in terms of legal fees and cleaning and restoring the property to a habitable standard. There is therefore a clear need to identify and address collecting and hoarding behaviour before it results in such a drastic course of action, and at an early stage as possible to provide support to the tenant concerned.
The current project is a pilot of the use of Motivational Interview (MI) techniques as a behavioural intervention, aiming to assist tenants to curb hoarding behaviour and to generate their own insights and solutions into their situation. MI can be defined as a person-centred method of guiding behaviour in order to elicit and strengthen personal motivation for change. The proposed model of MI aims to work with tenants own agendas to facilitate longer-term internal changes, rather than short-term externally motivated solutions (e.g., fear of eviction).
The onset of the Covid-19 pandemic has provided us with a unique opportunity to trial the use of distance Motivational Interviewing to address hoarding behaviour. This involves the use of a smartphone to communicate with residents and aid their behaviour change. The project is in its second of three years.
One paper is being prepared; a systematic review of interventions for hoarding behaviour. At least one other paper is planned to report the findings on whether Motivational Interviewing can reduce hoarding behaviour.
In 2014 Professor Carolyn Wallace developed the concept of family resilience for public health nurses (health visitors) working in Wales and leads the FRAIT (Family Resilience Assessment Instrument and Tool) team at USW.
The FRAIT comprises of the FRAIT (Family Resilience Assessment Instrument) and the FRAT (Family Resilience Assessment Tool), both of which form an evidenced based assessment for health visitors in their daily practice.
Its purpose is to assist health visitors in decision making, care planning and planning for further interventions and resources. It is used by all health visitors in Wales to comply with the Welsh Government (2016) Healthy Child Wales Programme.
To deliver this programme of research Professor Wallace works with Professor David Pontin (USW), Michelle Thomas (USW), Georgina Jones (SBUHB), Jane O’Kane (CTMUHB) and Liz Wilson (HDUHB).
Caregiving can be a demanding and rewarding experience that can put considerable strain on caregivers' resources. Establishing ways in which caregivers' resources can be enhanced to enable them to cope with daily challenges is extremely important to help support them in their valuable efforts to care for others.
Caring for those with additional needs can have an important impact on the wellbeing and quality of life of caregivers, and it is important that caregivers are helped to cope with any demands they experience in a way that lessens the impact on their wellbeing.
Dr Deborah Lancastle has conducted a series of studies looking at the wellbeing of the caregivers of those with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Dementia, Down's Syndrome, and Eating Disorders, and is currently looking at the impact of carers of those with Huntington's Disease.
A study recently completed has looked at the wellbeing of paid caregivers.
The main aim of the research is to establish the role of a particular coping strategy (Positive Reappraisal Coping) on the wellbeing of caregivers.
Deborah has been assisted over the years by a number of MSc Health Psychology and Clinical Psychology students (Joanna Hill, Katy Pitt, Amy Stone, Catherine Wellington, Alexcia Paul, Bethanie Marsh, Chloe Hoggins, and Praises Kolawole), and an undergraduate Psychology student (Daniel Williams).
Project staff: Gareth Parsons; Dr Juping Yu; Dr Deborah Lancastle; Dr Emma Tonkin
Nurse Education has a pivotal role to play in nurturing the qualities of care and compassion, and one way of achieving this is to utilise patient stories. We produced a short story about a real patient’s experiences of care and using QR codes built a learning resource in the form of a story walk linked to different locations around our Clinical Simulation Suite. Nursing students follow the patient’s journey from diagnosis to discharge, listening to audio recordings recounting the patient’s experience of care in her own voice. See the evaluation here.
This study, was published in Psychological Medicine, found that up to 68% of prisoners had previously experienced some form of childhood abuse or neglect, whereas 23% reported engaging in suicide attempts. These findings were based on 24 studies containing data from 16,586 prisoners around the world.
Furthermore, this study demonstrated that prisoners who experienced multiple, sexual and emotional abuse were three times more likely to engage in suicide attempts than those prisoners without similar experiences, and that prisoners with experiences of physical abuse and emotional neglect were two times more likely to attempt suicide as adults. These findings suggest that early screening for experiences of childhood maltreatment in prisons may assist towards the prevention of suicidal behaviours in this highly vulnerable group.
Researcher: Dr Melody Cranbourne-Rosser (University of South Wales)
Research Supervisors: Dr Miglena Campbell, Dr Lesley Pilkington, & Dr Nikki Carthy (Teesside University); Counselling and Psychotherapy Interventions for Children and Young People, 16 July 2020
Working with children and young people (CYP) demonstrating harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) is complex and requires understanding of the dual identity of ‘victim’ and ‘victimiser’. Working with such experiences can impact on therapeutic processes, such as ‘presence’, a phenomenon manifesting from connection and moment‐to‐moment awareness. Research into presence generally focuses on working with adults.
This study explored presence when working with CYP demonstrating HSB. Eight practitioners were interviewed focusing on their lived experiences of presence in terms of personal perception, cultivation, and influence on practice and sustainability. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, which resulted in two main themes: ‘presence and person’ and ‘presence and place’.
Findings suggested that in addition to presence and the therapeutic relationship enhancing each other qualitatively, presence provides a platform of connectivity from which to engage, promotes working from a whole‐person perspective and assigns deeper meaning to the work; cultivation requires opportunities to identify, enhance and embrace the phenomenon in order to promote self‐awareness and utilise presence effectively with others; practitioner well‐being and sustainability requires application of self‐care strategies and robust workplace support; and the development of a safe and productive presence‐informed service requires suitable processes and procedures to be established. These points are considered in terms of implications and future recommendations for practice and policy.